Cox ZL, Collins SP, Hernandez GA, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Dapagliflozin in Patients With Acute Heart Failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2024 Apr 9;83(14):1295-1306. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2024.02.009. (Original study)

BACKGROUND: The primary goals during acute heart failure (AHF) hospitalization are decongestion and guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) optimization. Unlike diuretics or other GDMT, early dapagliflozin initiation could achieve both AHF goals.

OBJECTIVES: The authors aimed to assess the diuretic efficacy and safety of early dapagliflozin initiation in AHF.

METHODS: In a multicenter, open-label study, 240 patients were randomized within 24 hours of hospital presentation for hypervolemic AHF to dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily or structured usual care with protocolized diuretic titration until day 5 or hospital discharge. The primary outcome, diuretic efficiency expressed as cumulative weight change per cumulative loop diuretic dose, was compared across treatment assignment using a proportional odds model adjusted for baseline weight. Secondary and safety outcomes were adjudicated by a blinded committee.

RESULTS: For diuretic efficiency, there was no difference between dapagliflozin and usual care (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.41-1.02; P = 0.06). Dapagliflozin was associated with reduced loop diuretic doses (560 mg [Q1-Q3: 260-1,150 mg] vs 800 mg [Q1-Q3: 380-1,715 mg]; P = 0.006) and fewer intravenous diuretic up-titrations (P = 0.05) to achieve equivalent weight loss as usual care. Early dapagliflozin initiation did not increase diabetic, renal, or cardiovascular safety events. Dapagliflozin was associated with improved median 24-hour natriuresis (P = 0.03) and urine output (P = 0.005), expediting hospital discharge over the study period.

CONCLUSIONS: Early dapagliflozin during AHF hospitalization is safe and fulfills a component of GDMT optimization. Dapagliflozin was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in weight-based diuretic efficiency but was associated with evidence for enhanced diuresis among patients with AHF. (Efficacy and Safety of Dapagliflozin in Acute Heart Failure [DICTATE-AHF]; NCT04298229).

Discipline Area Score
Cardiology 6 / 7
Hospital Doctor/Hospitalists 5 / 7
Internal Medicine 5 / 7
Comments from MORE raters

Hospital Doctor/Hospitalists rater

This study demonstrates that dapagliflozin is a diuretic saver, but the endpoints achieved in this article were soft. It did not modify the average stay, mortality, or readmissions, nor the major endpoint.
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